The model simulates this pattern because, with shorter SOAs, the radicals of an orthographically similar prime partially activate the target character, but with longer SOAs, the increasingly active prime character suppresses the target, inhibiting its processing. The success of the Lexical Constituency model and connectionist models of English word identification e.
The model was first trained on corpora of characters of varying frequency, regularity, and consistency. The key findings were that, as with children, the model was faster and more accurate naming characters associated with increasing age, frequency, regularity, and consistency. And whereas the regularity effect was attenuated by both age and frequency, the consistency effect actually increased. Character naming time and accuracy as a function of frequency, regularity, consistency, and semantic transparency. Patterns of naming deficits observed with Chinese readers having phonological versus surface dyslexia.
The model's naming performance improved with character frequency, regularity, and consistency, with both regularity and consistency interacting with frequency. Learning was also faster for characters containing consistently used i. Phonological dyslexia was simulated by degrading the orthography—phonology mappings, whereas surface dyslexia was simulated by degrading the semantics—phonology mappings.
With the Chinese model, the less transparent orthography—phonology mappings and an increased reliance on semantic—phonology mappings produced more equivalent impairments with both types of dyslexia. Of course, the fact that Chinese words are not demarcated by spaces also makes their identification in text more difficult because readers must somehow segment strings of characters into their constituent words.
According to the model, words are processed in a serial manner, with the completion of an early stage of lexical processing initiating a saccade towards the center of the next word, and the subsequent completion of lexical access causing attention to shift to the next word.
These assumptions, along with adjustments to the model's parameters, were sufficient to simulate the patterns of fixation durations and probabilities observed in Chinese reading. Interestingly, the added assumption that the rate of lexical processing is also modulated by character frequency did not improve the model's performance. One hypothesis for how this might be done is that readers exploit statistical regularities of the writing system e.
According to this account, saccades are not directed towards default targets e. Of course, any complete model of reading must explain more than word identification or its coordination with eye movements and attention. Their simple recurrent network e.
Reading Chinese Script : A Cognitive Analysis
This model was used to examine the relative difficulties associated with predicting reading upcoming words in 16 different types of Chinese Mandarin sentences e. Perhaps more important, the simulations again indicate that general learning principles and a single model architecture are sufficient to explain reading behaviors in languages as different as Mandarin and English Elman, In contrast, with Chinese, the individual strokes, radicals, and characters are represented along two spatial dimensions.
Additionally, models of English word identification describe how graphemes are converted into phonemes through either direct mapping e. Finally, because Chinese words are of variable length and not separated by clear boundaries, it is unclear how words are segmented for their identification and for saccade targeting.
Although plausible, simulations suggest that the relative difficulty of parafoveal processing may instead be used to dynamically adjust saccade length during reading e. But if so, then perhaps saccades are also dynamically adjusted even in writing systems where words are clearly demarcated targets. Such questions underscore the importance of developing computational reading models of languages other than English.
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Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Our understanding of the cognitive processes involved in reading has been advanced by computational models that simulate those processes e.
Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Each of 1—9 individual radicals can be represented by a unique pattern of activation of 16 binary nodes and two nodes representing their spatial configuration e.
Reading Chinese Script : a cognitive analysis
This information feeds into nodes that each represents a unique character, which in turn feed into 1 nodes representing their corresponding meanings; and 2 63 nodes representing the onsets, vowels, and tones of each character. Zhu, Morphemic Processing in Reading Chinese. Perfetti, L. Zhou, H. Shu, Y. Bi, D. Liu, Character and Word Recognition in Chinese. Sun, D. Yang, G.
Reading Chinese Script: A Cognitive Analysis, 1st Edition (Paperback) - Routledge
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Overview This volume uses unique properties of Chinese script to focus on morphological analyses during the character and word recognition process, though some of the reported work also pertains to the use of phonological information. In addition, this volume contains work on syntactic and pragmatic processes during sentence reading and three chapters that examine on-line processes. A comprehensive appraisal of cognitive processes during the reading of Chinese script that includes studies conducted by leading researchers from within and outside the mainland, this volume will be of interest to all those studying reading and visual symbol processing.
Product Details Table of Contents. Table of Contents Contents: Preface. Show More. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Cognitive Work Analysis: Coping with Complexity. Cognitive Work Analysis CWA is a structured framework specifically developed for considering the development and analysis of View Product.
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