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Pick the sizing closest to your measurement, the beautiful thing about wool felt is how it will mould to your head, so if you head is a bit larger than the measurement the hat will stretch or if its a little bit smaller your hat will settle to fit nicely as you wear it. Your Name:.

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Our sizing is pretty simple, take a measuring tape and measure around your head where you'd like you hat to sit, Pick the sizing closest to your measurement, the beautiful thing about wool felt is how it will mould to your head, so if you head is a bit larger than the measurement the hat will stretch or if its a little bit smaller your hat will settle to fit nicely as you wear it. The apparent discreteness of main colours is an artefact of human perception and the exact number of main colours is a somewhat arbitrary choice. Newton, who admitted his eyes were not very critical in distinguishing colours, [8] originally divided the spectrum into five main colours: red, yellow, green, blue and violet.

Later he included orange and indigo, giving seven main colours by analogy to the number of notes in a musical scale. According to Isaac Asimov , "It is customary to list indigo as a colour lying between blue and violet, but it has never seemed to me that indigo is worth the dignity of being considered a separate colour.

To my eyes it seems merely deep blue. The colour pattern of a rainbow is different from a spectrum, and the colours are less saturated. There is spectral smearing in a rainbow owing to the fact that for any particular wavelength, there is a distribution of exit angles, rather than a single unvarying angle. Further red of the first supplementary rainbow overlaps the violet of the primary rainbow, so rather than the final colour being a variant of spectral violet, it is actually a purple.

The number of colour bands of a rainbow may therefore be different from the number of bands in a spectrum, especially if the droplets are particularly large or small. Therefore, the number of colours of a rainbow is variable. If, however, the word rainbow is used inaccurately to mean spectrum , it is the number of main colours in the spectrum. The question of whether everyone sees seven colours in a rainbow is related to the idea of linguistic relativity. Suggestions have been made that there is universality in the way that a rainbow is perceived.

When sunlight encounters a raindrop, part of the light is reflected and the rest enters the raindrop. The light is refracted at the surface of the raindrop. When this light hits the back of the raindrop, some of it is reflected off the back. When the internally reflected light reaches the surface again, once more some is internally reflected and some is refracted as it exits the drop.

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The light that reflects off the drop, exits from the back, or continues to bounce around inside the drop after the second encounter with the surface, is not relevant to the formation of the primary rainbow. Seawater has a higher refractive index than rain water, so the radius of a "rainbow" in sea spray is smaller than a true rainbow.

This is visible to the naked eye by a misalignment of these bows. If the sun were a laser emitting parallel, monochromatic rays, then the luminance brightness of the bow would tend toward infinity at this angle ignoring interference effects.

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See Caustic optics. But since the sun's luminance is finite and its rays are not all parallel it covers about half a degree of the sky the luminance does not go to infinity. Furthermore, the amount by which light is refracted depends upon its wavelength , and hence its colour. This effect is called dispersion.

Blue light shorter wavelength is refracted at a greater angle than red light, but due to the reflection of light rays from the back of the droplet, the blue light emerges from the droplet at a smaller angle to the original incident white light ray than the red light. Due to this angle, blue is seen on the inside of the arc of the primary rainbow, and red on the outside.

The result of this is not only to give different colours to different parts of the rainbow, but also to diminish the brightness. A "rainbow" formed by droplets of a liquid with no dispersion would be white, but brighter than a normal rainbow. The light at the back of the raindrop does not undergo total internal reflection , and some light does emerge from the back.

However, light coming out the back of the raindrop does not create a rainbow between the observer and the sun because spectra emitted from the back of the raindrop do not have a maximum of intensity, as the other visible rainbows do, and thus the colours blend together rather than forming a rainbow. A rainbow does not exist at one particular location. Many rainbows exist; however, only one can be seen depending on the particular observer's viewpoint as droplets of light illuminated by the sun. All raindrops refract and reflect the sunlight in the same way, but only the light from some raindrops reaches the observer's eye.

This light is what constitutes the rainbow for that observer. The whole system composed by the sun's rays, the observer's head, and the spherical water drops has an axial symmetry around the axis through the observer's head and parallel to the sun's rays. The rainbow is curved because the set of all the raindrops that have the right angle between the observer, the drop, and the sun, lie on a cone pointing at the sun with the observer at the tip.

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It is possible to determine the perceived angle which the rainbow subtends as follows. The term double rainbow is used when both the primary and secondary rainbows are visible.


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  • In theory, all rainbows are double rainbows, but since the secondary bow is always fainter than the primary, it may be too weak to spot in practice. Secondary rainbows are caused by a double reflection of sunlight inside the water droplets.

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    As a result of the "inside" of the secondary bow being "up" to the observer, the colours appear reversed compared to those of the primary bow. The secondary rainbow is fainter than the primary because more light escapes from two reflections compared to one and because the rainbow itself is spread over a greater area of the sky. Each rainbow reflects white light inside its coloured bands, but that is "down" for the primary and "up" for the secondary.

    Unlike a double rainbow that consists of two separate and concentric rainbow arcs, the very rare twinned rainbow appears as two rainbow arcs that split from a single base. A "normal" secondary rainbow may be present as well.

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    Twinned rainbows can look similar to, but should not be confused with supernumerary bands. The two phenomena may be told apart by their difference in colour profile: supernumerary bands consist of subdued pastel hues mainly pink, purple and green , while the twinned rainbow shows the same spectrum as a regular rainbow. The cause of a twinned rainbow is the combination of different sizes of water drops falling from the sky.

    Due to air resistance, raindrops flatten as they fall, and flattening is more prominent in larger water drops. When two rain showers with different-sized raindrops combine, they each produce slightly different rainbows which may combine and form a twinned rainbow.

    That small difference in droplet size resulted in a small difference in flattening of the droplet shape, and a large difference in flattening of the rainbow top. Meanwhile, the even rarer case of a rainbow split into three branches was observed and photographed in nature. In theory, every rainbow is a circle, but from the ground, usually only its upper half can be seen. Viewing the rainbow's lower half requires the presence of water droplets below the observer's horizon, as well as sunlight that is able to reach them.

    These requirements are not usually met when the viewer is at ground level, either because droplets are absent in the required position, or because the sunlight is obstructed by the landscape behind the observer. From a high viewpoint such as a high building or an aircraft, however, the requirements can be met and the full-circle rainbow can be seen. A circular rainbow should not be confused with the glory , which is much smaller in diameter and is created by different optical processes.

    In the right circumstances, a glory and a circular rainbow or fog bow can occur together. In certain circumstances, one or several narrow, faintly coloured bands can be seen bordering the violet edge of a rainbow; i. These extra bands are called supernumerary rainbows or supernumerary bands ; together with the rainbow itself the phenomenon is also known as a stacker rainbow. The supernumerary bows are slightly detached from the main bow, become successively fainter along with their distance from it, and have pastel colours consisting mainly of pink, purple and green hues rather than the usual spectrum pattern.

    Supernumerary rainbows cannot be explained using classical geometric optics. The alternating faint bands are caused by interference between rays of light following slightly different paths with slightly varying lengths within the raindrops.


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    • Some rays are in phase , reinforcing each other through constructive interference , creating a bright band; others are out of phase by up to half a wavelength, cancelling each other out through destructive interference , and creating a gap.